The kurram river takes its origin in the junction of number of small streams at no great distance above Kharlachi.From Kharlachi until its junction with the Kirman 12 miles down it receives no further supply except from occasional flood torrents coming down from the Safed Koh, through an innumerable series of ravines cut into the plateau. The Kirman rises in the chamkani hills which are spars of the Safed Koh and is in itself, with the villages on its banks, dependant on it for irrigation, not unlike the kurram on a small sale. For another 16 miles the only contribution to the river is rain drainage from the hills, but at Sadda is received the khurmana. This river for practically the whole of its length flows through hilly trans border territory, and is within the Kurram itself for only a few miles after it issues from the Kharmana defile. The steep hills on the either side render it practically useless for irrigating any higher land which the kurram cannot reach. Seven miles lower at tungi the river receives a small supply from the junction of two streams taking their rise in Jaji Maidan.